Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Children and young adults today distinguish right from wrong based on their previous knowledge. The education they receive plays a major role in the way they make decisions. Sex is a controversial topic brought up frequently throughout a child's life. Based on the way it is taught, the child makes decisions that may forever change his or her life. (Sex Education That 3) Although it is often opposed, the two most essential ways children learn about sex today is the education they receive at home and at school. The relationship and behavior between children and their parents is crucial to the ways these children shape their own sexual ideas and values A child who perceives his relationship to his parents as supportive and close, is more likely to sexually behave in a way approved by his or her parents than a child brought up in an unhealthy environment. (Single-Sex Education 1) Furthermore, communication is more effective in a loving family relationship, and a child who feels loved generally feels good about his or her general outlook on sex. (Straight Talk About 56) Along with normal education, sex education must progress and grow with the individual child. Often, there is a real communication barrier between parents and children when it comes to talking about sex. (Sex Education That 2 ) The children sometimes feel awkward asking parents personal questions. In numerous situations, kids are left with many unanswered questions. A small number of adults know for sure what their kids think about sex, or do not know their son's or daughter's sexual experiences. (Choosing Virginity 68 )Parents frequently wish to talk to their children but are sometimes too ashamed or just too ignorant. Yet, adults still do not seek wa... ...fected. (Single Sex Education 5)They also argue that a million teenage girls get pregnant each year and at least half of these girls have an abortion. (Virgin Cool 71) The government hasn't yet taken its case anywhere, but will most likely in the years to come. Ultimately, it is up to the children to decide how he or she interprets the sex education of which they receive. (Straight Talk About 45) The most effective deterrents include a strong self-esteem, the ability to make informed choices, and meaningful options that give young people futures worth protecting and healthy ways to protect their identity. (Sexual Values 29) The choices they make will forever impact their lives. The controversy of sex education will, as well, forever stay the same. Whether at home or at school, children will always be faced with many tough decisions to make. (Sex Education That 45)
Sunday, November 10, 2019
However, according to Unit 04 Ã¢â¬â Communication of Health & Consumers Directorate-General of the European Commission (SANCO): Ã¢â¬Å"The Codex, while being recommendations for voluntary application by members, Codex standards serve in many cases as a basis for national legislation. The reference made to Codex food safety standards in the World Trade OrganizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) means that Codex has far reaching implications for resolving trade disputes. WTO members that wish to apply stricter food safety measures than those set by Codex may be required to justify these measures scientifically. Ã¢â¬ So, an agreement made in 2003, signed by all member states, inclusive all EU, in the codex Stan Codex 240 Ã¢â¬â 2003 for coconut milk, sulphite containing additives like E223 and E 224 are allowed till 30 mg/kg, does NOT mean, they are allowed into the EU, see RASFF entries from Denmark: 2012. 0834; 2011. 1848; en 2011. 168, Ã¢â¬Å"sulphite unauthorised in coconut milk from Thailand Ã¢â¬Å". Same for polysorbate E 435: see 2012. 0838 from Denmark, unauthorised polysorbates in coconut milk and, 2007. AIC from France. Only for the latter the EU amended its regulations with (EU) No 583/2012 per 2 July 2012 to allow this additive, already used for decades and absolutely necessary. AustraliaFood Standards Australia New Zealand is working toward ensuring that all food businesses implement food safety systems to ensure food is safe to consume in a bid to halt the increasing incidence of food poisoning, this includes basic food safety training for at least one person in each business. Smart business operators know that basic food safety training improves the bottom line, staff take more pride in their work; there is less waste; and customers can have more confidence in the food they consume. Food Safety training in units of competence from a relevant training package, must be delivered by a Registered Training Organization (RTO) to enable staff to be issued with a nationally recognised unit of competency code on their certificate. Generally this training can be completed in less than one day. Training options are available to suit the needs of everyone. Training may be carried out in-house for a group, in a public class, via correspondence or online. Basic food safety training includes: Understanding the hazards associated with the main types of food and the conditions to prevent the growth of bacteria which can cause food poisoning and to prevent illness The problems associated with product packaging such as leaks in vacuum packs, damage to packaging or pest infestation, as well as problems and diseases spread by pests. Safe food handling. This includes safe procedures for each process such as receiving, re-packing, food storage, preparation and cooking, cooling and re-heating, displaying products, handling products when serving customers, packaging, cleaning and sanitizing, pest control, transport and delivery. Also the causes of cross contamination. Catering for customers who are particularly at risk of food-borne illness, including allergies and intolerance. Correct cleaning and sanitizing procedures, cleaning products and their correct use, and the storage of cleaning items such as brushes, mops and cloths. Personal hygiene, hand washing, illness, and protective clothing. People responsible for serving unsafe food can be liable for heavy fines under this new legislation, consumers are pleased that industry will be forced to take food safety seriously. ChinaMain article: Food safety in the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China Food safety is a growing concern in Chinese agriculture. The Chinese government oversees agricultural production as well as the manufacture of food packaging, containers, chemical additives, drug production, and business regulation. In recent years, the Chinese government attempted to consolidate food regulation with the creation of the State Food and Drug Administration in 2003, and officials have also been under increasing public and international pressure to solve food safety problems. However, it appears that regulations are not well known by the trade. Labels used for Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ food, Ã¢â¬Å"organicÃ¢â¬ food and Ã¢â¬Å"pollution-freeÃ¢â¬ food are not well recognized by traders and many are unclear about their meaning. A survey by the World Bank found that supermarket managers had difficulty in obtaining produce that met safety requirements and found that a high percentage of produce did not comply with established standards.  Traditional marketing systems, whether in China or the rest of Asia, presently provide little motivation or incentive for individual farmers to make improvements to either quality or safety as their produce tends to get grouped together with standard products as it progresses through the marketing channel. Direct linkages between farmer groups and traders or ultimate buyers, such as supermarkets, can help avoid this problem. Governments need to improve the condition of many markets through upgrading management and reinvesting market fees in physical infrastructure. Wholesale markets need to investigate the feasibility of developing separate sections to handle fruits and vegetables that meet defined safety and quality standards.  European UnionThe parliament of the European Union (EU) makes legislation in the form of directives and regulations, many of which are mandatory for member states and which therefore must be incorporated into individual countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ national legislation. As a very large organisation that exists to remove barriers to trade between member states, and into which individual member states have only a proportional influence, the outcome is often seen as an excessively bureaucratic Ã¢â¬Ëone size fits allÃ¢â¬â¢ approach. However, in relation to food safety the tendency to err on the side of maximum protection for the consumer may be seen as a positive benefit. The EU parliament is informed on food safety matters by the European Food Safety Authority. Individual member states may also have other legislation and controls in respect of food safety, provided that they do not prevent trade with other states, and can differ considerably in their internal structures and approaches to the regulatory control of food safety. FranceAgence nationale de securite sanitaire de lÃ¢â¬â¢alimentation, de lÃ¢â¬â¢environnement et du travail (anses) is a French governmental agency dealing with food safety. GermanyThe Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer. Protection (BMELV) is a Federal Ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. History: Founded as Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Foresting in 1949, this name did not change until 2001. Then the name changed to Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture. At the 22nd of November 2005, the name got changed again to its current state: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. The reason for this last change was that all the resorts should get equal ranking which was achieved by sorting the resorts alphabetically. Vision: A balanced and healthy diet with safe food, distinct consumer rights and consumer information for various areas of life, and a strong and sustainable agriculture as well as perspectives for our rural areas are important goals of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV). The Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety is under the control of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. It exercises several duties, with which it contributes to safer food and thereby intensifies health-based consumer protection in Germany. Food can be manufactured and sold within Germany without a special permission, as long as it does not cause any damage on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ health and meets the general standards set by the legislation. However, manufacturers, carriers, importers and retailers are responsible for the food they pass into circulation. They are obliged to ensure and document the safety and quality of their food with the use of in-house control mechanisms. Hong KongIn Hong Kong SAR, the Centre for Food Safety is in charge of ensuring food sold is safe and fit for consumption. IndiaFood Safety and Standards Authority of India, established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, is the regulating body related to food safety and laying down of standards of food in India. New ZealandSee also: Food safety in New Zealand The New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA), or Te Pou Oranga Kai O Aotearoa is the New Zealand government body responsible for food safety. NZFSA is also the controlling authority for imports and exports of food and food-related products. The NZFSA as of 2012 is now a division of the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) and is no longer its own organization. PakistanPakistan does not have an integrated legal framework but has a set of laws, which deals with various aspects of food safety. These laws, despite the fact that they were enacted long time ago, have tremendous capacity to achieve at least minimum level of food safety. However, like many other laws, these laws remain very poorly enforced. There are four laws that specifically deal with food safety. Three of these laws directly focus issues related to food safety, while the fourth, the Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Act, is indirectly relevant to food safety. The Pure Food Ordinance 1960 consolidates and amends the law in relation to the preparation and the sale of foods. All provinces and some northern areas have adopted this law with certain amendments. Its aim is to ensure purity of food being supplied to people in the market and, therefore, provides for preventing adulteration. The Pure Food Ordinance 1960 does not apply to cantonment areas. There is a separate law for cantonments called Ã¢â¬Å"The Cantonment Pure Food Act, 1966Ã¢â¬ . There is no substantial difference between the Pure Food Ordinance 1960 and The Cantonment Pure Food Act. Even the rules of operation are very much similar. Pakistan Hotels and Restaurant Act, 1976 applies to all hotels and restaurants in Pakistan and seeks to control and regulate the rates and standard of service(s) by hotels and restaurants. In addition to other provisions, under section 22(2), the sale of food or beverages that are contaminated, not prepared hygienically or served in utensils that are not hygienic or clean is an offense. There are no express provisions for consumer complaints in the Pakistan Restaurants Act, 1976, Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 and Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Act, 1996. The laws do not prevent citizens from lodging complaints with the concerned government officials; however, the consideration and handling of complaints is a matter of discretion of the officials.  South KoreaKorea Food & Drug AdministrationKorea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) is working for food safety since 1945. It is part of the Government of South Korea. IOAS-Organic Certification Bodies Registered in KFDA: Ã¢â¬Å"OrganicÃ¢â¬ or related claims can be labelled on food products when organic certificates are considered as valid by KFDA. KFDA admits organic certificates which can be issued by 1) IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement) accredited certification bodies 2) Government accredited certification bodies Ã¢â¬â 328 bodies in 29 countries have been registered in KFDA. Food Import Report: According to Food Import Report, it is supposed to report or register what you import. Competent authority is as follows: Product.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Processes All living things need a continuous supply of energy to keep their cells functioning normally and to stay healthy. Some organisms, called autotrophs, can produce their own energy using sunlight or other energy sources through processes such as Ã¢â¬â¹photosynthesis. Others, like humans, need to eat food in order to produce energy. However, that is not the type of energy cells use to function. Instead, they use a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to keep themselves going. The cells, therefore, must have a way to take the chemical energy stored in food and transform it into the ATP they need to function. The process cells undergo to make this change is called cellular respiration. Two Types of Cellular Processes Cellular respiration can be aerobic (meaning with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen). Which route the cells take to create the ATP depends solely on whether or not there is enough oxygen present to undergo aerobic respiration. If there is not enough oxygen present for aerobic respiration, then some organisms will resort to using anaerobic respiration or other anaerobic processes such as fermentation. Aerobic Respiration In order to maximize the amount of ATP made in the process of cellular respiration, oxygen must be present. As eukaryotic species evolved over time, they became more complex with more organs and body parts. It became necessary for cells to be able to create as much ATP as possible to keep these new adaptations running properly. Early Earths atmosphere had very little oxygen. It wasnt until after autotrophs became abundant and released large amounts of oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis that aerobic respiration could evolve. The oxygen allowed each cell to produce many times more ATP than their ancient ancestors that relied on anaerobic respiration. This process happens in the cell organelle called the mitochondria. Anaerobic Processes More primitive areÃ the processes that many organisms undergo when not enough oxygen is present. The most commonly known anaerobic processes are known as fermentation.Ã Most anaerobic processes startÃ out the same way as aerobic respiration, but they stopÃ partway through the pathway because the oxygen is not available for it to finish the aerobic respiration process, or they join with another molecule that is not oxygen as the final electron acceptor. Fermentation makes many fewer ATP and also releases byproducts of either lactic acid or alcohol, in most cases. Anaerobic processes can happen in the mitochondria or in the cytoplasm of the cell. Lactic acid fermentation is the type of anaerobic process humans undergo if there is a shortage of oxygen. For example, long distance runners experience a buildup of lactic acid in their muscles because they are not taking in enough oxygen to keep up with the demand of energy needed for the exercise. The lactic acid can even cause cramping and soreness in the muscles as time goes on. Alcoholic fermentation does not happen in humans. Yeast is a good example of an organism that undergoes alcoholic fermentation. The same process that goes on in the mitochondria during lactic acid fermentation also happens in alcoholic fermentation. The only difference is that the byproduct of alcoholic fermentation is ethyl alcohol. Alcoholic fermentation is important for the beer industry. Beer makers add yeast which will undergo alcoholic fermentation to add alcohol to the brew. Wine fermentation is also similar and provides the alcohol for the wine. Which is Better? Aerobic respiration is much more efficient at making ATP than anaerobic processes like fermentation. Without oxygen, the Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain in cellular respiration get backed up and will not work any longer. This forces the cell to undergo the much less efficient fermentation. While aerobic respiration can produce up to 36 ATP, the different types of fermentationÃ can only have a net gain of 2 ATP. Evolution and Respiration It is thought that the most ancient type of respiration is anaerobic. Since there was little to no oxygen present when the first eukaryotic cells evolved through endosymbiosis, they could only undergo anaerobic respiration or something similar to fermentation. This was not a problem, however, since those first cells were unicellular. Producing only 2 ATP at a time was enough to keep the single cell running. As multicellular eukaryotic organisms began to appear on Earth, the larger and more complex organisms needed to produce more energy. Through natural selection, organisms with more mitochondria that could undergo aerobic respiration survived and reproduced, passing on these favorable adaptations to their offspring. The more ancient versions could no longer keep up with the demand for ATP in the more complex organism and went extinct.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Probabilities for Dihybrid Crosses in Genetics It may come as a surprise that our genes and probabilities have some things in common. Due to the random nature of cell meiosis, some aspects to the study of genetics is really applied probability. We will see how to calculate the probabilities associated with dihybrid crosses. Definitions and Assumptions Before we calculate any probabilities, we will define the terms that we use and state the assumptions that we will work with. Alleles are genes that come in pairs, one from each parent. The combination of this pair of alleles determines the trait that is exhibited by an offspring.The pair of alleles is the genotype of an offspring. The trait exhibited is the offsprings phenotype.Alleles will be considered as either dominant or recessive. We will assume that in order for an offspring to display a recessive trait, there must be two copies of the recessive allele. A dominant trait may occur for one or two dominant alleles. Recessive alleles will be denoted by a lower case letter and dominant by an upper case letter.An individual with two alleles of the same kind (dominant or recessive) is said to be homozygous. So both DD and dd are homozygous.An individual with one dominant and one recessive allele is said to be heterozygous. So Dd is heterozygous.In our dihybridÃ crosses, we will assume that the alleles we are considering are inherited independently of one another.In all examples, both parents are heterozy gous for all of the genes being considered.Ã Monohybrid Cross Before determining the probabilities for a dihybrid cross, we need to know the probabilities for a monohybrid cross. Suppose that two parents who are heterozygous for a trait produce an offspring. The father has a probability of 50% of passing on either of his two alleles. In the same way, the mother has a probability of 50% of passing on either of her two alleles. We can use a table called a Punnett square to calculate the probabilities, or we can simply think through the possibilities.Ã Each parent has a genotype Dd, in which each allele is equally likely to be passed down to an offspring.Ã So there is a probability of 50% that a parent contributes the dominant allele D and a 50% probability that the recessive allele d is contributed.Ã The possibilities are summarized: There is a 50% x 50% 25% probability that both of the offsprings alleles are dominant.There is a 50% x 50% 25% probability that both of the offsprings alleles are recessive.There is a 50% x 50% 50% x 50% 25% 25% 50% probability that the offspring is heterozygous. So for parents who both have genotype Dd, there is a 25% probability that their offspring is DD, a 25% probability that the offspring is dd, and a 50% probability that the offspring is Dd. These probabilities will be important in what follows. Dihybrid Crosses and Genotypes We now consider a dihybrid cross.Ã This time there are two sets of alleles for parents to pass on to their offspring.Ã We will denote these by A and a for the dominant and recessive allele for the first set, and B and b for the dominant and recessive allele of the second set.Ã Both parents are heterozygous and so they have the genotype of AaBb. Since they both have dominant genes, they will have phenotypes consisting of the dominant traits.Ã As we have said previously, we are only considering pairs of alleles that are not linked to one another, and are inherited independently. This independence allows us to use the multiplication rule in probability.Ã We can consider each pair of alleles separately from each other.Ã Using the probabilities from the monohybrid cross we see: There is a 50% probability that the offspring has Aa in its genotype.There is a 25% probability that the offspring has AA in its genotype.There is a 25% probability that the offspring has aa in its genotype.There is a 50% probability that the offspring has Bb in its genotype.There is a 25% probability that the offspring has BB in its genotype.There is a 25% probability that the offspring has bb in its genotype. The first three genotypes are independent of the last three in the above list.Ã So we multiply 3 x 3 9 and see that there are these many possible ways to combine the first three with the last three.Ã This is the same ideas as using a tree diagram to calculate the possible ways to combine these items. For example, since Aa has probability 50% and Bb has a probability of 50%,Ã there is a 50% x 50% 25% probability that the offspring has a genotype of AaBb.Ã The list below is a complete description of the genotypes that are possible, along with their probabilities. The genotype of AaBb has probability 50% x 50% 25% of occurring.The genotype of AaBB has probability 50% x 25% 12.5% of occurring.The genotype of Aabb has probability 50% x 25% 12.5% of occurring.The genotype of AABb has probability 25% x 50% 12.5% of occurring.The genotype of AABB has probability 25% x 25% 6.25% of occurring.The genotype of AAbb has probability 25% x 25% 6.25% of occurring.The genotype of aaBb has probability 25% x 50% 12.5% of occurring.The genotype of aaBB has probability 25% x 25% 6.25% of occurring.The genotype of aabb has probability 25% x 25% 6.25% of occurring. Dihybrid Crosses and Phenotypes Some of these genotypes will produce the same phenotypes.Ã For example, the genotypes of AaBb, AaBB, AABb, and AABB are all different from each other, yet will all produce the same phenotype.Ã Any individuals with any of these genotypes will exhibit dominant traits for both traits under consideration.Ã We may then add the probabilities of each of these outcomes together: 25% 12.5% 12.5% 6.25% 56.25%.Ã This is the probability that both traits are the dominant ones. In a similar way we could look at the probability that both traits are recessive.Ã The only way for this to occur is to have the genotype aabb.Ã This has a probability of 6.25% of occurring. We now consider the probability that the offspring exhibits a dominant trait for A and a recessive trait for B.Ã This can occur with genotypes of Aabb and AAbb.Ã We add the probabilities for these genotypes together and have18.75%. Next, we look at the probability that the offspring has a recessive trait for A and a dominant trait for B.Ã The genotypes are aaBB and aaBb.Ã We add the probabilities for these genotypes together and have a probability of 18.75%.Ã Alternately we could have argued that this scenario is symmetric to the early one with a dominant A trait and a recessive B trait. Hence the probability for this outcomes should be identical. Dihybrid Crosses and Ratios Another way to look at these outcomes is to calculate the ratios that each phenotype occurs.Ã We saw the following probabilities: 56.25% of both dominant traits18.75% of exactly one dominant trait6.25% of both recessive traits. Instead of looking at these probabilities, we can consider their respective ratios.Ã Divide each by 6.25% and we have the ratios 9:3:1.Ã When we consider that there are two different traits under consideration, the actual ratios are 9:3:3:1. What this means is that if we know that we have two heterozygous parents, if the offspring occur with phenotypes that have ratios deviating from 9:3:3:1, then the two traits we are considering do not work according to classical Mendelian inheritance.Ã Instead, we would need to consider a different model of heredity.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Northern Gateway Pipeline - Essay Example A project of such a scale requires a sizable investment and with that, the external factors affecting the project or the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s own impact on the society should be analyzed extensively (Enbridge Inc, 2012; AFX News Limited, 2007). Officials at Enbridge believe the project has more direct and indirect benefits to offer than harm to the society or the environment. .Such projects provide employment opportunities, permanent and contract based. The construction period of the pipeline project will open a window for 62700 jobs and 1146 operational jobs in British Colombia, Alberta and parts of Canada, collectively. Such a job exposure will lead to skill development within the workforce. High-end tax returns of the pipeline project of $912million will contribute towards the betterment of the society and the province. This will be the largest private investment in the history of British Colombia. The revenue from the pipeline will contribute $270million to the Canadian GDP. Tax reve nues over 30 years will be over $1 billion, providing funds for healthcare, education and creating more job oppurtunities. Such an invest will give 1150 jobs in the Canadian economy. (Northern gateway pipeline project). Enbridge is one of the largest energy corporations in Canada, said that the company has the worst environmental record of 804 oil spills between 1991-2010. Therefore, it would not be surprising to realize that Enbridge Inc. is not exactly the favorite of environmental activists and often faces open criticism from various social pressure groups. The chiefs of the Gitxsan region have openly condemned the idea for the pipeline. Environment activists argue that the process of extraction of oil from the oil sands wills pollute air and nearby water bodies such as lakes and rivers, this process will give a rise to global warming causing heat levels to rise in the region. If a spill were to occur, the chances of an explosion may arise due to the levels of bitumen present and such spill in remote areas is always a difficult task to cleanup, especially in winters. The bitumen pipeline penetrates coastal waters for 185km; a spill can fatally damage the marine life and the waters of the protected bear forest. Furthermore, bitumen rapidly dissolves in water; this makes the decontamination a lengthy task. (Girard, R. 2010; CBC News 2012) The figures released by Enbridge state that the pipeline running from Kitimat would transport 193,000 barrels of natural gas condensate per day. With a westerly flow, oil pipeline containing bitumen will transport 525,000 barrels of oil per day. Through the Kitimat marine terminal, the oil will be shipped to the Asian overseas markets via tankers. Enbridge officials ensure that all vessels that enter Kitimat terminal will be modern and double hulled. All safety regulations will be followed and sea and wind conditions will be monitored closely. Enbridge claims that the strategy will be put forward by putting together the best people, strategy and planning (Pipeline information and plan). The debate will go on, between the economic benefits and the environmental hazards this pipeline project will bring. Economically the benefits are there, but being a public limited company has its certain limitations. Any undesired step putting the environment at risk might upset the shareholders and the investors greatly. Considering EnbridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation of oil spills and environmental violations, the criticisms on Enbridge
Friday, November 1, 2019
Octavian's two biggest achievements - Article Example OctavianÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements of building a strong military and achieving Pax Romana are inextricably linked to each other. His strong military allowed him to achieve the much coveted yet elusive Pax Romana or unprecedented Roman Peace that ensued prosperity, beautification, improvement and Renaissance in the Roman Civilization. Octavian was able to achieve the establishment of a strong military due to the reform program he instituted after being installed as an Emperor of Rome after Julius Caesar was assassinated. Octavian made himself a dictator and founded the principate which is system of monarchy which he headed for life with a strong military under his direct command (BBC). These political conditions allowed him to bring about his greatest achievements as Emperor of the Roman Empire. The military was under the direct of Octavian and it followed that it was strengthened to reinforce the political will of Octavian as a dictator of Rome. A strong military ensured him that his ide a of principate which made him a ruler for life will not be threatened and provided stability in the Empire to allow peace to prosper. Among the military reforms that Octavian instituted was the creation of a standing army abroad. His armies abroad took a proactive vigorous military campaign not only to expand the reach of the Roman Empire but also to ward off the possibilities of attacks and/or invasion from barbarians (BBC). In effect, he was able to check the external threat against the Empire even beyond its frontiers that OctavianÃ¢â¬â¢s army was able to neutralize them even before becoming a threat. Thus, the removal of the barbarian threat abroad by the expeditionary campaign of his military paved the way for peace or Pax Romana, which is patently Octavian or Augustus Ceasar because of the legacy it created that we still enjoy today in the field of arts, culture and literature whereby it flourished due to the stability, good administration and unprecedented peace that preva iled during OctavianÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. Pax Romana or Roman peace did not only meant the relative absence of conflict in the Roman Empire but also meant an efficient administration that allowed the city to flourish. The absence of anxiety of an impending conflict enabled the Empire to focus its energy on reconstruction and improvement both among the governed and the government of Octavian. In the administration aspect, Pax Romana brought and effective civil service system which was created for the able Romans to have a career in governance and thus, public administration became effective. Taxation was also made reasonable contrary to OctavianÃ¢â¬â¢s predecessor who taxed excessively. This reinforced the atmosphere of peace since there was no dissent among the population that could be wrought up by harsh taxation. Thus, there was also no internal threat because the citizens were generally content with the taxation and civil administration of Octavian. Peace was further reinforced by th e establishment of a permanent police force and fire brigade to ensure the peace and order and to effectively respond to any fire disaster in the city. As a result, Rome became safer, more beautiful, cleaner with happier citizens. Pax Romana or Roman Peace also paved the way for stability and provided the necessary atmosphere for culture, arts and beatification to flourish. The legendary poets such as Virgil, Horace and Propertius, flourished and became the poets of the day.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Adenauers Foreign Policy - Essay Example n, anticommunist foreign policy for which Davison & Speier (1957) has expressed their opinion in the following words: "To a generation living with the memories of World War II, into which another German chancellor had plunged the world less than twenty years earlier, Adenauer has been the symbol of sobriety and moderation. His firm adherence to the principles underlying Western civilisation is beyond doubt, and his policies bear no trace of Hitler's nihilism and hybrid". (Davison & Speier, 1957, p. 2) And obviously both Adenauer and Brandt acquire this political characteristic that despite being chancellors of their eras, they only concern about ways to unite the broken Germany, not by aggression but by political diplomacy.Adenauer performed a historic role for confronting various challenging issues just after the Second World War. All his foreign policies lead him towards a single solution i.e., a united Europe and that is what he dreamt about throughout his life. Not only dreamt bu t also implemented his visions in the form of practical solution by developing certain policies, that remained successful in uniting both the East and West of the Germany. The best thing about Adenauer's regime was he did not receive resistance from a large communist minority. However, he received several obstructions on the basis of the opposition he received from the German Social Democratic party. Adenauer's Foreign Policy - German Sovereignty Adenauer felt the need to develop his own foreign policy in the late 1940s when he saw the German policies been threatened by France. At this stage he felt a real need to devise a new set of foreign policies but due to the restriction imposed upon him he was unable to do so. The only option he found open was to secure German sovereignty, and this could only be achieved by integrating FRG (Federal Republic of Germany) to Western Europe. Adenauer recovered Germany by effective foreign and domestic policy thereby standardising the German currency rate in 1948. It was in 1950s when Adenauer succeeded in recognising his new state's entry into Western institutions. In this context the first move he made was the acceptance of the partnership of those nations who at times were Germany's greatest opponents. France was at the top of the list. This was the first step towards establishment of a secure foreign policy that defended German sovereignty. Dissolving the Ruhr Authority Adenauer contributed towards gaining rights of the Ruhr's authority and was able to acquire freedom to the FRG thereby alleviating all provisions and statutes against European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). According to Schwarz (1995) "The economy of Western Europe had to be regarded as an interdependent system and could not prosper without the Ruhr. In his view it followed from this that a forced suppression of the German economy was in no-one's interests. Drawing on his experiences stretching back over almost three decades, he maintained that the establishment of a bloc-free Germany would be unwise, too. He pleaded for a reconstruction of the German economy; this meant that the Ruhr should be internationalised and linked closely with the Western European economic system". (Schwarz, 1995, p. 40) So, the foremost achievement of Adenauer was the independence of Ruhr authority, which without him